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Evolution Library: Topic Page

Member beliefs What most LDS have been taught in church and believe as truth The leaders of the church, as well as gospel doctrine teachers the world over, have taught that many Biblical events and beliefs that people have had for centuries are indeed true, historical events. Joseph Smith and other prophets have made statements that indicated that certain Biblical events were indeed historical and not merely parables. Many of these Biblical traditions were believed as literal events by most of the general population in the s as well. Global Flood of Noah. Adam and Eve were the first humans. Dinosaurs were never alive on this earth, because there was no death before Adam.

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So, how do we know how old a fossil is? There are two main methods determining a fossils age, relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages. Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a fossil by using radiometric dating to measure the decay of isotopes, either within the fossil or more often the rocks associated with it. Relative Dating The majority of the time fossils are dated using relative dating techniques.

Using relative dating the fossil is compared to something for which an age is already known.

A fossil found in a lower rock layer is considered to have lived in a much earlier time than one found in a higher ("younger") stratum. Fossil discoveries, however, continue to challenge this interpretation of the geologic timescale.

Fossils over time Introduce students to fossils this is one approach; see below for an alternative approach: Brachiopods and trilobites were abundant from about to million years ago mya. Ammonite fossils were most abundant between and 65 mya died out when dinosaurs did. Dinosaur fossils must be older than 65 million years last non-avian dinosaurs went extinct then. Earliest whale and pre-whale fossils would be less than 55 million years old.

There are no known human fossils older than about 7 million years. As part of this, show the class an enlarged version of the chart: Patterns in the Fossil Record ," point out how the different major groups of vertebrates did not all appear at once, but separately, over several s of millions of years. Emphasize that there are NO fossils of mammals prior to about mya millions of years ago , NO reptiles prior to about mya, NO fishes prior to about mya.

Ask"how long is 1 million years?

Archeology PowerPoint Templates

The purpose of this collection is to allow you to view your favorite objects from our David H. Koch Hall of Human Origins or to examine many of the primate and other animal skeletons housed in our museum"s collections. All of the virtual objects on display were either CT or laser scanned. The scanning process enabled us to generate 3D models of each object that you can view, rotate, and interact with online. It may take a minute or two to load depending on your computer, but after it is loaded you will be able to move the 3D object around by holding down the left-click button and moving your mouse.

The word fossil comes from the Latin word fossilis, which means"dug up." Sedimentary rock is rock that has formed from sediment, like sand, mud, small pieces of rocks. Determining whether an object or event is older or younger than other objects or events is called relative dating.

Introduction Hominid or hominin? Some scientists use a broader definition of Hominidae which includes the great apes, and instead call the group I am discussing"hominins". The word"hominid" in this website refers to members of the family of humans, Hominidae, which consists of all species on our side of the last common ancestor of humans and living apes. Hominids are included in the superfamily of all apes, the Hominoidea, the members of which are called hominoids.

Although the hominid fossil record is far from complete, and the evidence is often fragmentary, there is enough to give a good outline of the evolutionary history of humans. The time of the split between humans and living apes used to be thought to have occurred 15 to 20 million years ago, or even up to 30 or 40 million years ago.

Some apes occurring within that time period, such as Ramapithecus, used to be considered as hominids, and possible ancestors of humans. Later fossil finds indicated that Ramapithecus was more closely related to the orang-utan, and new biochemical evidence indicated that the last common ancestor of hominids and apes occurred between 5 and 10 million years ago, and probably in the lower end of that range Lewin Ramapithecus therefore is no longer considered a hominid.

The field of science which studies the human fossil record is known as paleoanthropology. It is the intersection of the disciplines of paleontology the study of ancient lifeforms and anthropology the study of humans. Hominid Species The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record note that this ordering is not meant to represent an evolutionary sequence , except that the robust australopithecines are kept together.

Geology Online Subchapter

Carbon Dating Radiocarbon dating , or carbon dating , is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon 14C to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 58, to 62, years. Such raw ages can be calibrated to give calendar dates. One of the most frequent uses of radiocarbon dating is to estimate the age of organic remains from archaeological sites.

When plants fix atmospheric carbon dioxide CO2 into organic material during photosynthesis they incorporate a quantity of 14C that approximately matches the level of this isotope in the atmosphere a small difference occurs because of isotope fractionation, but this is corrected after laboratory analysis. After plants die or they are consumed by other organisms for example, by humans or other animals the 14C fraction of this organic material declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay of 14C.

Comparing the remaining 14C fraction of a sample to that expected from atmospheric 14C allows the age of the sample to be estimated.

PowerPoint Rotate the model by holding the LEFT click button and dragging with your mouse. All Flash models are shown at relative size to one another (i.e., smaller .

What are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks and which picture is a representation of that rock type. ABCTypes of rock Igneous - think of the word ignites Formed from solidified molten rocksMetamorphic Think of the word magmaFormed when other rocks are changed by heat, pressure, and chemical reactionsSedimentary - Formed when combinations of rock fragments, seashells, and chemicals are composed in layers and hardens The Earths Story UniformitarianismTheory: Geologic change is gradual Scientist: HuttonTo help me remember: Geologic change is suddenScientist: LyellTo help me remember: Think of catastrophe disaster Hutton known as the father of GeologyLyell went against Uniformitarianism and believed the present is the key to the future4Current theoryModern geology current theory: Gradual geologic change is interrupted by catastrophesTo study geologic change involves studying past life.

Unit #1

What is Absolute Dating? Age of fossil or rock is given in years instead of relative terms like before and after. First Attempted in ; Compare U and Pb content of minerals; Very crude but quickly showed ages over a billion years; Skepticism about. Determining the actual age of an event or object in years is called absolute dating.

Law of superposition; Use of index fossils. Geologists use relative dating to figure out if a rock is older or younger than. Radiometric dating uses the half-life of atoms to figure out the age of the rock. Absolute Dating determines the actual age of a rock or fossil in years. The main method of absolute dating is RADIOMETRIC DATING.

Download powerpoint Figure 1. Comparison of a the expert tree, to seven Bayesian dating analyses b—h using the Slater [ 16 , 17 ] characters and dates. As the expert tree"s taxa do not perfectly overlap with the Slater taxa, key node dates are compared: The expert tree dates are given in a , and the differences from these are given in b—h. This behaviour was also noted by Slater [ 16 ].

The expert-tree dates of crown Canis which includes Cuon, Lycaon and Xenocyon and crown Caninae are approximately 3.

Fossil Formation Process Fifth Grade Science Standards at I4C

Each lesson is designed using the 5E method of instruction to ensure maximum comprehension by the students. The following post will walk you through each of the steps and activities from the geologic time scale lesson plan. Class Activity The teacher can model this activity first.

3. Fossil Dating & Hardy-Weinberg Pt. I Dating fossils}There are two methods to determine the age of a fossil. A. Relative Dating}Judging the age of a fossil according to its position in the rock layer.}Ex: Fossil D is younger Microsoft PowerPoint - Julie - Unit 4 Author.

Fungi are primarily terrestrial, achlorophyllous, eukaryotic organisms that were at one time grouped with plants. Together with a few other groups of heterotrophic organisms, the fungi are the principal decomposers in the biosphere, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere and nitrogenous compounds into the soil. They also function as bioweathering agents and transformers of minerals and rocks.

Fungi are involved in numerous types of associations with other organisms, ranging from those that produce diseases in plants and animals to a variety of beneficial, symbiotic relationships. Despite the microscopic size of the cells, in terms of numbers of individuals and metabolic diversity, bacteria are the dominant organisms of the biosphere and, geologically, the oldest organisms on earth.

They live in every possible habitat—soil, water, and even the deep subsurface of the continents and oceans; they can even be found in radioactive waste. They are critical in nutrient recycling, including the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form that is usable by plants. The organisms that make up the lichen live in a close symbiotic relationship in which the photobiont gains mechanical protection, increased water availability, reduced desiccation, and an improved ability to obtain nutrients from the mycelium of the fungus.

Chesapeake Quarterly Volume 12 Number 4: The Chesapeake"s Excellent Fossils

Geologic Time The most obvious feature of sedimentary rock is its layering. This feature is produced by changes in deposition over time. With this in mind geologist have long known that the deeper a sedimentary rock layer is the older it is, but how old? Although there might be some mineral differences due to the difference in source rock, most sedimentary rock deposited year after year look very similar to one another. This means that a quartz sandstone deposited million years ago will look very similar to a quartz sandstone deposited 50 years ago.

Making this processes even more difficult is the fact that due to plate tectonics some rock layers have been uplifted into mountains and eroded while others have subsided to form basins and be buried by younger sediments.

A fossil is the preserved remains of a once living organism. Relative dating is the science of determining the relative age of rock layers and/or fossils within those rock layers based on the comparative positions of those rock layers. PowerPoint Presentation.

The Evidence for Evolution: Biogeography This site explains how the biogeography of organisms, which keeps closely related species in fairly close proximity, provides further evidence for evolution. The role of plate tectonics in determining geographic locations of organisms is also discussed. Hosted by Nova Southeastern University. External Link Evidence for Evolution Biodiversity is a Guarantee of Evolution This transcript of an interview with Nobel Prize-winning microbiologist Werner Arber reveals his opinions about the origins of biodiversity and its evolutionary and ecological consequences.

Other Resources Evidence for Evolution Biogeography This college-level text provides a thorough introduction to the principles of biogeography, and includes the original map of zoogeographic regions drawn by Alfred Russel Wallace. Brown and Mark V. Other Resources Evidence for Evolution Crowding Innovation out of Evolution This"Research News" article examines the theory that evolution produces some threshold level of biodiversity and then diversification levels off as all the available"ecospace" gets filled.

Kerr [Science A Biogeographic Approach This analysis shows how biogeographical and geophysical studies can inform each other, using the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia during the early Cambrian as a case in point. Lierberman [Geology 25 Other Resources Evidence for Evolution Early Hominid Biogeography This paper compares hypothetical biogeographical patterns of primitive hominids with known dispersal patterns of Plio-Pleistocene African mammals.

Tip

Many of the creatures of the ancient oceans had strange and complex body shapes. What explains their body shapes? Using creatures from the ancient oceans as examples, discuss how a successful body plan may exist virtually unchanged for hundreds of millions of years while others have become extinct. Hypothesize reasons, motivations and explanations for the first sea creatures stepping out of the ocean. What do you think motivated the first creature to leave the ocean for land?

Why do you think scientists study ocean creatures so carefully?

The fossil record for all continents is now equally well understood. c) Ground water percolating down through the soil is usually a hindrance to the mineralization of buried bone.

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FOSSILS: how fossils are dated


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