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Archaeology in Carlisle and Cumbria

Ponce is commonly known by several names: Ponce was Spain"s capital of the southern region until it fell to the U. Nearly one half a billion dollars have been spent preserving the colonial core of Ponce. The heart of Ponce dates from the late 17th century and has been declared a national treasure. It consists of plazas and churches and highly decorative colonial homes, some glorious fountains and a unique fire station. Ponce is an important trading and distribution center, and has a port of entry; Playa de Ponce Port is one of the busiest ports in the Caribbean area, handles tobacco, coffee, rum, and sugar cane. Points of Interest The beautiful downtown Plaza de las Delicias is a worthwhile stop, with lovely fountains, a cathedral and local bench sitting denizens.

Sir Isaac Newton

The first such place was undoubtedly in San Francisco. Most writers note 1 agree that the earliest temple was in present-day Chinatown: Both are claimed to have existed since the early s. However, whether one accepts such claims depends on how one understands historical continuity. It is not enough to rely on secondary sources or oral tradition.

Kitchen Antiques Historic kitchen equipment, culinary objects >>Resources divided into: >>Museum collections of culinary objects >>Fireplace cooking, cast iron >>18th and/or 19th century kitchen items >>Early 20th and/or 19th century >>Earlier and miscellaneous Or jump down to the page to Victorian advice on equipping a kitchen.

The investigated artefacts, related to mining and everyday life, were found in the course of archaeological excavations, which were carried out between and by Richard Pittioni and Ernst Preuschen. Taking an adequate number of tree rings and well-preserved wood wane into account, 21 pieces of mining timber were pre-selected for a dendrochronological analysis. The length of the established tree-ring series ranges from 13 to We cross-dated the tree-ring series of seven wooden artefacts among each other, which resulted in a spruce-fir tree-ring record of values Kelchalm mean curve.

The last tree ring measured of the Kelchalm spruce-fir mean curve dates back to BC. This accurate dendro-result dates the Bronze Age mining activities at the Kelchalm to about two centuries earlier than the long-lasting assumption proposed by Richard Pittioni. His assumption was based on the typology of ceramic and metal artefacts.

The established dendro-date for the Bronze Age mine at the Kelchalm matches with available 14C results from other important copper-mining areas in the north-eastern Alps NE Alps. The activities at these other sites are dated between the 17th and 6th century BC. Furthermore, the radiocarbon dating, as well as the dendro-result from the Kelchalm, suggests a transition from earlier mined copper-ore deposits in the eastern areas of the NE Alps, to the later mined ore deposits in the western section.

This has led to both parallel and sequential mining activities in several ore districts during the last two millennia BC in the NE Alps. Previous article in issue.

Radiocarbon dating

Get adequately obsessive about wood maintenance and it might even outlast you. You might not last another hundred years, but your garden table might if you treat it right. To mark their th anniversary they decided to find the oldest Passmore shed still in use. They found it in Chatham, where it had provided gardening pleasure since and was still going strong. How to keep your wood garden furniture in tip top condition Now for the sensible bit. How, exactly, do you maintain garden furniture to extend its life as long as possible, save cash, prevent waste and create a small piece of family history?

The archaeology collection consists of over 12, man-made objects that date to before the end of the Tudors in The majority of these come from the northern part of Cumbria and Carlisle, but some objects in the collection come from much further afield.

Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the"radiocarbon age", which is the age in"radiocarbon years" of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as"Conventional Radiocarbon Age".

Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.

The different elements of the carbon exchange reservoir vary in how much carbon they store, and in how long it takes for the 14 C generated by cosmic rays to fully mix with them. This affects the ratio of 14 C to 12 C in the different reservoirs, and hence the radiocarbon ages of samples that originated in each reservoir.

Ponce, Puerto Rico

A Roman legionary received grams over 2 pounds of wheat every day, for bread or porridge. A single Republican legion had about men and armies ten times that size were commonly fielded even in the most remote times. For an army of that size the grain alone amounted to a couple hundred tons the equivalent of some ox-cart loads worth of supplies to move every day.

The Ġgantija Temples in Xagħra, Gozo, are one of the most important archaeological sites in the Maltese Islands and are listed on the UNESCO World Heritage site consists of two temples dating back to between and B.C.. The name Ġgantija derives from the word ġgant, the Maltese word for giant as the site was commonly associated with a race of giants.

If limited strictly to religious practices, an inventory of ceremonial and ritualistic objects remains incomplete, because these objects have played significant roles on solemn secular occasions, such as consecrations, enthronements, and coronations, which may be closely linked to the divine order, as in Hindu -, Buddhist-, and Christian -influenced cultures.

Icons and symbols Constituting a most-significant category of cult objects are representations of a deity. Though such representations are often depicted in the form of statues and images icons of divine or sacred beings, they may also be either figurative or symbolic , the meanings often being equivalent. In Tantrism an Indian esoteric , magical, and philosophical belief system centred on devotion to natural energy , for example, the sacred Sanskrit syllable Om —which is a transcendent word charged with cosmological order-of-the-universe symbolism—is identified with the feminine counterpart of the god.

In its written form, particularly on Tibetan banners thang-ka s , the word Om often corresponding with the feminine counterpart— Tara —of the patron of Tibet is considered to be eminently sacred, even more so, in some instances, than an anthropomorphic human-form divine effigy. Statues and painted images occur most frequently in religious iconography, as noted above. These are often viewed as the permanent embodiments of the deities they represent, whether they are located in sacred places of religious communities , such as temples , shrines, or chapels , or on domestic altars, which contain statues or icons of the divinities of prosperity and fertility, mother goddesses, household gods, saints, relics, the tablet of the ancestors in ancient China , and other similar domestic cult objects.

Many household cult objects are made from clay or terra-cotta and are sometimes multicoloured. The material of which major cult objects are composed is often explicitly defined and assumes a certain importance. If the statue is fashioned in wood, the choice of the wood acacia , sandal , or any other is symbolically important because it is considered auspicious. By the same token, the choice of stone is likewise important, depending on the region.

If metal is chosen, it is one that is deemed precious e.

Wooden Pony Torture

After treatment the marble was cleaned and treated with a protective wax. After careful reconstruction of the damage done by fitting knobs the piece was french polished and waxed. After Careful re-gluing and doweling of the ring, some minor veneer repairs the piece was french polished and waxed. Victorian Writing table This late Victorian Writing table had suffered badly from watermarking.

As long as you buy good quality pieces in the first place and treat them with plenty of TLC, wooden garden furniture can last a lifetime. Get adequately obsessive about wood maintenance and it .

Collections Archaeology in Carlisle and Cumbria The archaeology collection consists of over 12, man-made objects that date to before the end of the Tudors in The majority of these come from the northern part of Cumbria and Carlisle, but some objects in the collection come from much further afield. The majority is much more recent. The Early Bronze Age is represented by funeral pottery and metalwork.

There are only a few objects that date to later prehistory. The Early Medieval period is again sparsely represented, but includes two important Viking burials. It includes much material collected from the west coast of north Cumbria including such sites as Drigg and Eskmeals. Bronze Age The Bronze Age collection contains a range of metalwork, from axe and spearheads to examples of gold jewellery.

Kitchen antiques, culinary objects, historic kitchen equipment

Advice on equipping a kitchen in the 19th century Catherine Beecher had firm ideas about what was needed for a well-run household. Her list for the s kitchen in the USA included: In a prosperous American household in a"prudent and generous mistress" would supply her cook"with ample provision of all such things as her important department requires All these articles are indispensable, and there are a great many other useful implements which modern ingenuity has brought into use, and which it would be well to introduce into a fully-arranged kitchen.

Mary Ann Bryan Mason A book aimed at an English couple setting up home in a small cottage in the first half of the 19th century advised:

Introducing our remarkable collections We care for one of the world’s largest art and heritage collections. With more than one million objects at over historic places - including over , book titles - a surprise discovery awaits you around every corner.

Definition and Characteristics In archeology, the term"mobiliary art" is commonly used to denote any small-scale prehistoric art that is moveable mobile , including: One of the most famous examples is the ancient piece of Sumerian art known as The Guennol Lioness c. It is estimated that roughly 10, items of mobiliary art have been discovered so far. Pottery is another form of portable art albeit a highly functional one which we now know first appeared during the Upper Paleolithic.

For the world"s most ancient pottery , see: Xianrendong Cave Pottery c. The opposite of such"mobiliary art" is" parietal art", which refers to cave art that is found on cave walls, floors or ceilings, and which therefore cannot be moved. While mobiliary artworks have been found on almost every continent of the world, the oldest art of this type emerged in Western Europe during the late era of Paleolithic art and culture 40, , BCE.

Created during the Acheulean culture of the Lower Paleolithic period, their advanced age means that they were made not by Homo sapiens neanderthalensis but by the more primitive Homo erectus. They are the first known human attempts at sculpture , and the oldest examples of mobiliary art in prehistory. For more about the chronology of Upper Paleolithic culture, see: Prehistoric Art Timeline 2.

Ceremonial object

The Wooden Pony Torture Published November 26, The ancestor of wooden pony — wooden horse is a sharply angled torture device a wide triangular wooden plank, set sharp end up, mounted on a saw-horse like support. The helpless victim is lifted into the air and set upon the horse, his full body weight supported on the most tender flesh — his genitals, which rested on the point of the angle.

Additional weights or restraints were often attached to the ankles to keep the victim from falling off. His legs are forced wide by the width of the lower part of the plank.

The following material has been taken from a sheet entitled Several Faulty Assumptions Are Used in all Radiometric Dating 14 is used for this example: which was put out by Dr. Hovind. Dr. Hovind (R1): The atmospheric C is presently only 1/3 of the way to an equilibrium value which will be reached in 30, years. This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating.

Groupe Renault"s sales were up 8. It was a record year for Renault, the world"s leading French brand and number-two brand in Europe, and also for Dacia. Japan-based Nissan Motor sold 5. In the US and China in , the company achieved sales growth of 1. Mitsubishi Motors sold 1. The increase in volume was led by China. China became Mitsubishi Motors" largest market thanks to strong demand for the locally produced Outlander. The Nissan LEAF, the first mainstream, mass-marketed electric vehicle, remains the world"s best-selling EV with more than , vehicles sold since its launch in December As part of Alliance strategic plan, Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi will launch 12 new zero-emission electric vehicles and 40 vehicles with autonomous drive technology.

Valeo would like to extend Milovice facility 26 Jan iDnes Automotive supplier Valeo would like to extend its facility in Milovice near Prague which it is not likely to be possible due to a legal battle between the industrial are owner Mlada RP and the regional government. Thus Valeo is seeking a new location. In Milovice, it focuses on testing of sensors and software for autonomous driving, parking and other assistance systems.

Literary Terms and Definitions R

At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere.

Treen, literally"of a tree" is a generic name for small handmade functional household objects made of is distinct from furniture, such as chairs, and cabinetry, as well as clocks and cupboards. Before the late 17th-century, when silver, pewter, and ceramics were introduced for tableware, most small household items, boxes and tableware were carved from wood.

Show image caption A Chinese bronze bell, which plays different notes depending on where you hit it. It is decorated with dragons swallowing geese and has a handle in the shape of two dragons. It required great skill to make a bo and bells of similar size were not made in the west until a thousand years later. This bo would have been part of a set of bells of different sizes each playing different notes. It is played with a hammer and plays two different notes depending on where it is struck.

How was harmony created through music in ancient China? This bell was made at the beginning of the Warring States period - a time of political fragmentation and moral crisis in China.

Wooden Objects (Soft Spoken Sound Video)

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